MinuteEarth

MinuteEarth
  • 2 dakika
  • 156 bölüm
  • MinutePhysics
  • earth
  • earth science
  • ecology
  • climate
  • geology
  • biology
  • climate science
  • climate change
  • history
  • global warming
  • environment
  • minute
  • illustration
  • animation
  • digital animation
  • graphic design
  • cartoon
  • After Effects

Science and stories about our awesome planet!
Created by Henry Reich, with Emily Elert, Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Ever Salazar, Kate Yoshida, and David Goldenberg. Music by Nathaniel Schroeder.
"When we try to pick out anything by itself, we find it hitched to everything else in the Universe." ― John Muir

Why Earth Has Two Levels

Get NordVPN at https://NordVPN.com/minuteearth. Use code MINUTEEARTH to save 77%! Earth’s outer shell is made of two materials whose different densities and thicknesses give rise to two distinct “levels” on the planet’s surface. Watch our new show Paradigms (U.S. servers only!): https://www.vrv.co/paradigms Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Hypsometric Curve: Basically, a chart that shows the proportions of surface area at every elevation on a planet. Crust: Earth's outermost layer, made out of two distinct materials – oceanic crust (which is denser) and continental crust (which is less dense). Lithosphere: The rigid outer layer of Earth, including the crust and the hard, un-bending part of the upper mantle. Subduction: The process of an ocean plate crashing into another plate and getting forced to dive down into Earth's mantle. Isostasy: Describes the way earth's crust sort of floats in the underlying mantle. Continental crust is less dense and thicker, and floats higher than the oceanic crust, which is denser and thinner. Geologists talk about things like "isostatic rebound," which is what happens after an ice age, when the ice melts off a continent and the continent lifts up, like a floating raft in a pool after someone gets off (though continents rise more slowly). ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Emily Elert (@eelert) Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Albarede, F. (2009) Volatile accretion history of the terrestrial planets and dynamic implications. Nature, Vol 461. Calogero, Meredith. Personal Communication, 2018. Eakins, B.W. and G.F. Sharman. Hypsographic Curve of Earth's Surface from ETOPO1, NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, Boulder, CO, 2012 from: https://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/global/etopo1_surface_histogram.html Hawkesworth, C. J. & Kemp, A. I. S. (2006) Evolution of the continental crust. Nature, Vol 443. Rosenblatt, P.C , & Thouvenot, P.E. (1994). Comparative hypsometric analysis of Earth and Venus. Geophysics Research Letters, Vol 21, pp 465-468. Stern, R.J., Gerya, T, & Tackley, P.J. (2018) Stagnant lid tectonics: Perspectives from silicate planets, dwarf planets, large moons, and large asteroids. Geoscience Frontiers, 9.

3 gün önce

The Similarity Trap

Try Squarespace for free: http://squarespace.com/MinuteEarth And subscribe to MinuteEarth! http://goo.gl/EpIDGd As we try to figure out the evolutionary trees for languages and species, we sometimes get led astray by similar but unrelated words and traits. Thanks to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Cladistics: A method of recreating evolutionary trees based on evidence about relationships. Etymology: The study of the origin of words and how they have changed throughout history. Convergent Evolution: A process whereby different species evolve similar traits in order to adapt to similar environments. Polyphyly: A group containing members with multiple ancestral sources. Homoplasy: A trait shared by a group of species that is not shared in their common ancestor. False Cognates: Pairs of words with similar sounds and meanings but unrelated etymologies. ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: A photographer who has taken amazing photos of unrelated people who look alike: http://mentalfloss.com/article/53774/photos-unrelated-people-who-look-exactly-alike _________________________________________ Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Jessika Raisor Video Director: David Goldenberg, Emily Elert Video Narrator: Emily Elert With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Image Credits: Lappet-faced Vulture (Old World) - Steve Garvie https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Torgos_tracheliotos_-Masai_Mara_National_Reserve,_Kenya-8.jpg Turkey vulture (New World) - Flickr User minicooper93402 https://www.flickr.com/photos/minicooper93402/5440526260 Crested Porcupine (Old World) - Flickr user 57777529@N02 https://www.flickr.com/photos/57777529@N02/5398915634 North American Porcupine (New World) - iStock.com/GlobalP https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/north-american-porcupine-or-canadian-porcupine-or-common-porcupine-walking-gm515605852-88578399 Chinchilla lanigera - Nicolas Guérin https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chinchilla_lanigera_(Wroclaw_zoo)-2.JPG Naked Mole Rat - Roman Klementschitz https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nacktmull.jpg Ganges river dolphin - Zahangir Alom, NOAA (Public Domain) https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Platanista_gangetica_noaa.jpg Atlantic Spotted Dolphin - Flickr user 53344659@N05 https://www.flickr.com/photos/53344659@N05/4978423771/ Orcinus orcas - Robert Pittman, NOAA (Public Domain) https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Killerwhales_jumping.jpg Euphorbia obesa - Frank Vincentz https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:E_obesa_symmetrica_ies.jpg Astrophytum asterias - David Midgley https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Astrophytum_asterias1.jpg Sweet William Dwarf - Nicholas M. Bashour https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Spring_Flowers.JPG ___________________________________________ References: Atkinson, Q. and Gray, R. (2005). Darimont, C., Fox, C., Bryan, H., and Reimchen, C. (2015). Curious Parallels and Curious Connections — Phylogenetic Thinking in Biology and Historical Linguistics. Systematic Biology. 54:5 (513-526). Retrieved from: https://academic.oup.com/sysbio/article/54/4/513/2842862 Atkinson, Quentin. (2018). Personal Communication. Department of Evolution and Human Behavior at the University of Auckland. Bennu, D. (2004). The Evolution of Birds: An Overview of the Avian Tree of Life. Lab Animal. 33 (42-28)). Retrieved from: https://www.nature.com/articles/laban0504-42 De La Fuente, J.(2010). Urban legends: Turkish kayık ‘boat’ and “Eskimo” qayaq ‘kayak’. Studia Linguistica. 127 (7-24). Retrieved from: http://www.ejournals.eu/Studia-Linguistica/2010/2010/art/180/

2 hafta önce

Rise Of The Mesopredator (ft. ScienceWithTom)

Try Dashlane for free: http://bit.ly/minutedash. Use promo code "minuteearth" for 10% off Dashlane Premium. To see song lyrics, click "CC" on the video or, for an annotated version, click here: https://genius.com/14774391 Thanks to humans, old school apex predators are struggling to hold onto their perch at the top of the food chain. And now a new class of adaptable mesopredators are remaking the ecosystems they take over. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Food Web: The feeding relationships between animals that determine how energy and nutrients are spread throughout an ecosystem. Trophic Level: A hierarchical level in an ecosystem made up of organisms that share the same function in the food web. Apex predator: The animals at the top trophic level that feed on animals and organisms below them. Mesopredator: A member of a mid-ranking trophic level that preys on animals and organisms in lower trophic levels and occasionally gets eat by apex predators. Mesopredator Release: An ecological phenomenon in which mesopredators rapidly grow in population once apex predators are removed from an ecosystem. Trophic Cascade: A series of dramatic changes in an ecosystem often triggered by mesopredator release. ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: ScienceWithTom goes deep on the science in this video with ecologist Alex McInturff: https://youtu.be/TJcgtqjj-yo _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits: Script Writer: Tom McFadden Script Editor: David Goldenberg Video Illustrator: Qingyang Chen Video Director: David Goldenberg, Emily Elert Video Narrator: Emily Elert, Tom McFadden With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Emily Elert, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Darimont, C., Fox, C., Bryan, H., and Reimchen, C. (2015). The Unique Ecology of Human Predators. Science. 349: 6250 (858-860). Retrieved from: http://science.sciencemag.org/content/349/6250/858 Prugh, L., Stoner, C., Epps, C., Bean, W., Ripple, W., Laliberte, A. and Brashares, J. (2009). The Rise of the Mesopredator. BioScience. 59:9 (779-791). Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/bio.2009.59.9.9 Baum, J. and Worm, B. (2009). Cascading Top-down Effects of Changing Oceanic Predator Abundances (2009). Journal of Animal Ecology. 78: 699-714. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19298616 McInturff, Alex. (2018). Personal Communication. Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management at University of California, Berkeley.

1 ay önce

How Long Can We Live?

Try Squarespace for free: http://www.squarespace.com/MINUTEEARTH The human lifespan might be limited, in part, because natural selection just stops working late in life. Thanks to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors for helping to make this video possible. ___________________________________________ Video Keywords: Mortality plateau: the leveling out of the mortality rate that is observed at late ages in various species ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (Twitter handles): Script Writer: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Script Editor: Alex Reich and David Goldenberg Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius Video Director: David Goldenberg and Emily Elert Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: De Grey, A (Sept 2016, personal communication) Horiuchi S, Wilmoth JR (1998) Deceleration in the Age Pattern of Mortality at Older Ages. Demography 35: 4. https://link.springer.com/article/10.2307/3004009 Mueller, LD, Rose MR (1996) Evolutionary theory predicts late-life mortality plateaus. PNAS 26:15249-15253. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.93.26.15249 Rose MR, Rauser CL, Mueller LD, Benford G. (2006) A revolution for aging research. Biogerontology 7:269-77. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16612665 Rose, MR, Flatt, T, Graves, JL, Greer, L, Martinez, DE, Matos, MM, Mueller, LD, Shmookler Reis, RJ, and P. Shahrestani. 2012. What is aging? Frontiers in Genetics 3:134. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fgene.2012.00134/full Rose, M. (Sept 2016, personal communication)

1 ay önce

When Trees Go Nuts

Please support us through Patreon! https://www.patreon.com/minuteearth Or, click the "Sponsor" button to support us through YouTube itself. Thank you! Every once in a while, all the oaks or spruces or other plants in a region suddenly produce a tremendous bounty of seeds – up to 100 times more than usual. But why do they do it, and how do they all manage to sync up? ___________________________________________ To learn more about mast seeding, start your googling with these keywords: Mast Year: A year in which all the plants of a particular species in a region ramp up their seed production. Predator Satiation Hypothesis: The hypothesis that mast seeding is a strategy plants use for controlling the population of squirrels and other seed-eating animals. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Emily Elert (@eelert) Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Fletcher, Quinn E., Stan Boutin, Jeffrey E. Lane, Jalene M. LaMontagne, Andrew G. McAdam, Charles J. Krebs, and Murray M. Humphries. 2010. “The Functional Response of a Hoarding Seed Predator to Mast Seeding.” Ecology 91 (9): 2673–83. Kelly, Dave, and Victoria L. Sork. 2002. “Mast Seeding in Perennial Plants: Why, How, Where?” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 33 (1). Annual Reviews: 427–47. Kelly, D. 1994. “The Evolutionary Ecology of Mast Seeding.” Trends in Ecology & Evolution 9 (12): 465–70. LaMontagne, J. 2018. Personal Communication.

2 ay önce

Why You Shouldn't Give Ginger To Monkeys (and other animal sayings)

Learn new skills from this video’s sponsor, Skillshare: http://skl.sh/minuteearth4 Humans from different cultures anthropomorphize different animals to represent the same human traits. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Sunshower: A meteorological phenomenon in which the sunshines while rain is falling. Idiom: A group of words whose meaning is not readily understandable by defining the individual words. Anthropomorphism: The attribution of human characteristics to an animal or god or object. Linguistic Anthropology: A field of study into how language shapes communication around the world. ___________________________________________ If you’re an American, this New York Times dialect quiz can predict your hometown based on the particular words you use: https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/upshot/dialect-quiz-map.html _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Blust, R. (1999). The Fox’s Wedding. Anthropos. 94: 487-499. Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/40465016. Perkovic, A. and Rata, G. (2008). On The Romanian Equivalency Of Animal Idioms In English. Journal of Linguistic Studies. 1: 65-71. Retrieved from: http://docplayer.net/amp/64640306-Journal-of-linguistic-studies.html Tiechuan, M. (2015). Cause Analysis of Different Culture Image in English and Chinese Animal Idiom. Asian Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 3: 10-19. Retrieved from: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/f582/3a67a9d085c57417d069ef4bda0df7dd4b4c.pdf Shi, T. (2015). A Comparison of Animal Words in English and Chinese Culture. Presented at the 5th International Conference on Education, Management, Information and Medicine. Retrieved from: https://wenku.baidu.com/view/95eb244105087632311212ee.html

2 ay önce

Milk Is Just Filtered Blood

Join Honey for FREE at: https://www.joinhoney.com/MinuteEarth. Special thanks to Honey for sponsoring this episode. Female mammals make milk, a cocktail of filtered blood, to provide their babies with vital nutrients. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Mammal: Endothermic vertebrates that nurse their young. Lactation: The secretion of milk by the mammary glands. Mammary Gland: A cluster of alveoli and ducts that secretes milk. Mammary Alveoli: The tiny sacs that are the site of milk production and storage in the mammary gland. Oxytocin: A hormone released by the pituitary gland that - among other things - causes the milk ejection reflex during nursing. Holstein: A large black and white cow known for the large quantities of milk it yields. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Qingyang Chen (@QCVisual) Video Director: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Skibiel, A., Downing, L., Orr, T., and Hood, W. (2013).The Evolution Of The Nutrient Composition Of Mammalian Milks. Journal of Animal Ecology. 82 (6): 1254-1264. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23895187 Sharp, J., Wanyonyi, S., Modepalli, V., Watt, A., Kuruppath, S., Hinds, L., Kumar, A., Abud, H., Lefevre, C., and Nicholas, K. (2017). The Tammar Wallaby: A Marsupial Model To Examine The Timed Delivery And Role Of Bioactives In Milk. General and Comparative Endocrinology. 244: 164-177. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27528357 Tsuruta, S., Misztal, I., and Lawlor, T. (2004). Genetic Correlations Among Production, Body Size, Udder,and Productive Life Traits Over Time in Holsteins. Journal of Dairy Science. 87(5):1457-1468. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15290995 Nicholas, K. (1988). Asynchronous Dual Lactation In A Marsupial, The Tammar Wallaby. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 154 (2): 529-536. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2456758

3 ay önce

Are Plastics Too Strong?

The same chemistry that makes plastic tough, light and flexible also makes it nearly impossible to get rid of, because it’s hard to break those resilient chemical bonds. Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Polymer: A substance whose molecular structure consists of large numbers of similar units covalently bonded together Covalent bond: A strong type of bond in which adjacent atoms share electrons. Backbone chain: A long series of covalently bonded atoms that create the continuous chain of the molecule. Bioplastic: A type of plastic, usually biodegradable, made from biological substances. Scission: The breakage of a backbone chain at the bond level. Microbial biodegradation: The use of microbes to break molecules into smaller and less harmful forms. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ Image Credits: Disposable plastic cup - Wikimedia user Lionel Allorge https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tasse_Plastique_Air_France_1.jpg Sandbox and Beach Toys - The Children's Museum of Indianapolis https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Childrens_Museum_of_Indianapolis_-_Sandbox_and_Beach_Toys.jpg PET plastic - Montgomery County Division of Solid Waste Services https://flic.kr/p/cnfKKw LEGO Tank - Flickr user MaxFragg https://flic.kr/p/gDR7iV PVC Pipe - Pam Broviak https://flic.kr/p/4sy8kb IKEA Watering cans - Sonny Abesamis https://flic.kr/p/pcXrpj LEGO Figure - Marco Verch https://flic.kr/p/DseDts Wetsuit - Clemens Pfeiffer https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Shorty-wetsuit-O%27Neill.jpg White PVC Pipes - Teresa Trimm https://www.flickr.com/photos/ttrimm/7355733948 STS-120 Shuttle Mission Imagery - NASA https://spaceflight.nasa.gov/gallery/images/shuttle/sts-120/html/sts120-s-028.html Providing clean water - UK Department for International Development https://flic.kr/p/a4UESo ___________________________________________ References: Albertsson, A. and Hakkarainen, M. (2017). Designed To Degrade. Science. 358 (6365). 872-873. Retrieved from: http://science.sciencemag.org/content/358/6365/872 De Hoe, G., Zumstein, M., Tiegs, B., Brutman, J., McNeill, K., Sander, M., Coates, G., and Hillmyer, M. (2018). Sustainable Polyester Elastomers from Lactones: Synthesis,Properties, and Enzymatic Hydrolyzability. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 140: 963-973. Retrieved from: https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/jacs.7b10173 Tokiwa, Y., Calabia, B., Ugwu, C., and Aiba, S. (2009). Biodegradability of Plastics. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 10: 3722-3742. Retrieved from: http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/10/9/3722 Rydz, J., ,Sikorska, W., Kyulavska, M., and Christova, D. (2015). International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 16: 564-596. Retrieved from: http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/16/1/564 Hillmyer, M. (2017). The Promise of Plastics from Plants. Science. 358 (6365). 868-870. Retrieved from: http://science.sciencemag.org/content/358/6365/868 Hillmyer, M. (2017). Department of Chemistry, University of Minnesota. Personal Communication.

3 ay önce

How Much Food Is There On Earth?

Go to https://brilliant.org/MinuteEarth to build your math & science skills! Food already in cupboards, supermarkets, & warehouses could feed humanity for 4 months, but potential food - berries, termites & krill - could extend that by another year. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Food stock: the total amount of any particular food existing at any point in time Strategic reserve: food intentionally kept on reserve to be sold when supplies otherwise become low Stock to use ratio: the amount of stock of any given food at any point in time as a fraction of the total annual consumption of the commodity ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: https://fpaq.ca/en/federation/marketing/marketing-tools/strategic-reserve/ https://www.nationalgeographic.com/what-the-world-eats/ _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Peter Reich Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Jessika Raisor Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Atkinson, A., Siegel, V., et al. 2009. A re-appraisal of the total biomass and annual production of Antarctic krill. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers. Volume 56, Issue 5, 727-740 FAO. World Food Situation http://www.fao.org/worldfoodsituation/csdb/en/ FAO. World Cassava Situation and Recent Trends http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/x4007e/X4007E04.htm Kaspari, M., Weiser, M.D. 2012. Energy, taxonomic aggregation, and the geography of ant abundance. Ecography 35:65-72. National Geographic https://www.nationalgeographic.com/what-the-world-eats/ National Geographic https://www.nationalgeographic.com/what-the-world-eats/ Penn State University Extension. Oil factsheet: oilseed presses. 7pp (undated). Ritchie, H., Roser, M. 2018. "Meat and Seafood Production & Consumption". Published online at OurWorldInData.org. Retrieved from: 'https://ourworldindata.org/meat-and-seafood-production-consumption' Sanderson, MG. 1996. Biomass of termites and their emissions of methane and carbon dioxide: A global database. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 10, 543-557. Statista https://www.statista.com/statistics/251728/weekly-number-of-us-grocery-shopping-trips-per-household/ USDA ISSN: 1554-9089, World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates, February 8, 2018; https://www.usda.gov/oce/commodity/wasde/latest.pdf (latest monthly update) Wilson, RW. et al. 2009, Contribution of Fish to the Marine Inorganic Carbon Cycle, Science 323, 359-362 https://fpaq.ca/en/federation/marketing/marketing-tools/strategic-reserve/

3 ay önce

Is It Safe To Get Your DNA Tested?

Try Dashlane here: http://bit.ly/minutedash. Plus, here’s a 10% off promo code for Dashlane Premium: youtube2018 Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. Once it’s out of your body, your genetic information is valuable to a variety of people, but you can keep it safe(ish) with a few simple steps. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Personal Genetic Analysis: Direct-to-consumer DNA testing, usually through mail-in saliva samples. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism: A variation at a single spot on the genome that is present in some part of the population. Genotyping chip: A microarray that allows genetic testing companies to test a DNA sample for hundreds of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Health Care Fraud: A crime that usually involves misrepresenting medical information in order to make money. Targeted Advertising: The practice of placing ads based on consumer demographics or behavior. Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act: A 2008 American law that prohibits health insurers and employers from using genetic information when making coverage or hiring decisions. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Jesse Agar Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Melissa Gymrek, Amy L. McGuire, David Golan, Eran Halperin, Yaniv Erlich (2013). Identifying Personal Genomes by Surname Inference. Science. 339:6117 (321-324). Retrieved from: http://science.sciencemag.org/content/339/6117/321.full Joh, E. (2011). DNA Theft: Recognizing the Crime of Nonconsensual Genetic Collection and Testing. Boston University Law Review. 91:2 (666-700) Retrieved from: https://www.bu.edu/law/journals-archive/bulr/documents/joh.pdf Tanner, A. (2017). Our Bodies, Our Data: How Companies Make Billions Selling Our Medical Records. Available at: https://www.amazon.com/gp/search?index=books&linkCode=qs&keywords=9780807033340 Koerner, B. (2015). Your Relative’s DNA Could Turn You Into A Suspect. Wired. Retrieved from: https://www.wired.com/2015/10/familial-dna-evidence-turns-innocent-people-into-crime-suspects/ Pollack, A. (2015). Building a Face, and a Case, on DNA. New Yourk Times. Retrieved from: https://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/24/science/building-face-and-a-case-on-dna.html?_r=0 Cappos, Justin. (2017). Professor of Computer Science and Engineering, NYU. Personal Communication.

4 ay önce

We Asked Bill Gates: Do You Need To Be Rich To Be Healthy?

This video is in collaboration with Bill and Melinda Gates. You can check out the Gates Annual Letter here: http://b-gat.es/2Cfph0j Thanks to Bill and Melinda Gates for their financial support. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. No matter how wealthy a country is, there's a lot it can do to improve the health of its citizens. _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Bill Gates Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Jesse Agar Video Director: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Narrator: Bill Gates & Emily Elert With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Emily Elert, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Bolt, J., Timmer, M., & van Zanden, J. L. 2014. "GDP per capita since 1820”, in van Zanden, et al. (eds.), How Was Life?: Global Well-being since 1820, OECD Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264214262-7-en Life expectancy over time estimated from: https://github.com/open-numbers/ddf--gapminder--life_expectancy Countries that developed insurance systems found in: https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/theimpactofhealthinsurance_fulltext.pdf Thanks also to Dr. Shyam Deshpande and Dr. Tracy Seimears

5 ay önce

Why Electroshock Therapy Is Back

Please support us on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth or as a YouTube Sponsor! Thanks to everyone who already does! Shocking the brain has come and gone as a medical treatment, but it’s currently resurging, as it often provides the best form of relief for severe depression and advanced Parkinson’s disease. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Electroshock therapy: the original name for treating severe depression with a series of brief electrical shocks to the brain Electroconvulsive therapy: the current name for electroshock therapy Deep brain stimulation: a treatment for advanced Parkinson’s that uses pulsed electrical signals to targeted brain regions ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Peter Reich Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Ever Salazar, Emily Elert, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Arlotti M, et al 2016. The adaptive deep brain stimulation challenge. Parkinsonism and Related Disorders 28: 12-17 Benabid AL, S Chabardes, J Mitrofanis, P Polla. 2009. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Lancet Neurol. 8:67-81 Leiknes KA, Jarosh-von Schweder L, Høie B. 2012. Contemporary use and practice of electroconvulsive therapy worldwide. Brain and Behavior 2(3):283-344 Pagnin D, et al. 2004. Efficacy of ECT in Depression: A Meta-Analytic Review. J ECT 20:13-20 Sienaert P, K Vansteeland, K Demyttenaere, J Peuskens. 2010. Randomized comparison of ultra-brief bifrontal and unilateral electroconvulsive therapy for major depression: cognitive side-effects. J Affective Disorders 122:60-67 UK ECT Review Group, 2003. Efficacy and safety of electroconvulsive therapy in depressive disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet 361, 799–808.

5 ay önce

Why Our Favorite Crops Live Fast and Die Young

To start using Tab for a Cause, go to: http://tabforacause.org/r/minuteearth2 We mostly grow annual plants because they reliably produce energy-rich seeds, which we like to eat. Thanks to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Annual: a plant that typically lives for a year or less Biennial: a plant that typically lives for two years Perennial: a plant that typically lives for multiple years ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: The Case Against Civilization: https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2017/09/18/the-case-against-civilization _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrators: Bruno van Wayenburg and Ever Salazar Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Bonser, S. P. (2013). High reproductive efficiency as an adaptive strategy in competitive environments. Functional Ecology, 27(4), 876-885. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-2435.12064/full Crews, T. Personal Communication, Dec 2017. Crews, T. E., & DeHaan, L. R. (2015). The strong perennial vision: A response. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, 39(5), 500-515. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/21683565.2015.1008777 Friedman, J., & Rubin, M. J. (2015). All in good time: understanding annual and perennial strategies in plants. American journal of botany, 102(4), 497-499. http://www.amjbot.org/content/102/4/497.short Denison, R.F. Personal Communication, Nov 2017. Milla, R. Personal Communication, Dec 2017. Pimentel, D., et al. (2012). Annual vs. perennial grain production. Agriculture, ecosystems & environment, 161, 1-9. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167880912002058 Rees, M., & Long, M. J. (1992). Germination biology and the ecology of annual plants. The American Naturalist, 139(3), 484-508. http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/1403/1/reesm8_Rees_and_Long_1992_Am_Nat.pdf Reich, P. B. (2014). The world‐wide ‘fast–slow’plant economics spectrum: a traits manifesto. Journal of Ecology, 102(2), 275-301. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-2745.12211/full Smaje, C. (2015). The strong perennial vision: A critical review. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, 39(5), 471-499. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/21683565.2015.1007200 Van Tassel, D. L., DeHaan, L. R., & Cox, T. S. (2010). Missing domesticated plant forms: can artificial selection fill the gap?. Evolutionary Applications, 3(5‐6), 434-452. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1752-4571.2010.00132.x/full Vico, G. Personal Communication, Nov 2017. Vico, G., et al. (2016). Trade‐offs between seed output and life span–a quantitative comparison of traits between annual and perennial congeneric species. New Phytologist, 209(1), 104-114. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/nph.13574/full Westoby, M. Personal Communication, Nov 2017.

5 ay önce

A Disease's Guide to World Domination

Get 3 weeks of free access to CuriosityStream by visiting http://curiositystream.com/minute and using the promo code "minute" There's something surprising that helps determine how damaging a disease is: distance. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Direct transmission: occurs when a pathogen is transmitted to a new host by physical or close contact Virulence: the degree of damage a pathogen causes its host _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Emily Elert, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Blanquart, F., et al. (2016). A transmission-virulence evolutionary trade-off explains attenuation of HIV-1 in Uganda. Elife 5: 5. de Roode, J.C., Yates, A.J., & Altizer, S. (2008). Virulence-transmission trade-offs and population divergence in virulence in a naturally occurring butterfly parasite. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 105: 7489-7494 Ewald, P.W. (1983). Host-parasite relations, vectors, and the evolution of disease severity. Annual Reviews Ecology & Systematics 14: 465-485 Ewald, P.W. (1991). Waterborne transmission and the evolution of virulence among gastrointestinal bacteria. Epidemiology & Infection 106: 83-119. Ewald, P.W. (1991). Transmission modes and the evolution of virulence: with special reference to cholera, influenza, and AIDS. Human Nature 2: 1-30. Galvani, A.P. (2003) Epidemiology meets evolutionary ecology. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 18: 132-139. Lipsitch, M. & Moxon, E.R. (1997). Virulence and transmissibility of pathogens: what is the relationship? Trends in Microbiology 5: 31-37.

6 ay önce

Why Do Birds Migrate Like This?

Buy the book: "Where the Animals Go: Tracking Wildlife with Technology in 50 Maps and Graphics" at http://www.wheretheanimalsgo.com Copyright 2016 by James Cheshire and Oliver Uberti. First American Edition published by W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. in 2017. First published in Great Britain in 2016 by Particular Books, an imprint of Penguin Books. Migrating birds care more about the ease of their trip than the distance they travel, and that leads to some truly roundabout routes. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Migration: The seasonal movement of a population of animals from one area to another. Prevailing winds: Winds in a particular area that blow in a particular direction. Thermal: An upward current of warm air. Lift: A force that counteracts the weight of an object and holds it in the air. Flyway: A route regularly used by lots of migrating birds. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Arcadi García Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Horton, K., Van Doren, B., Stepanian, P.,Hochachka, W., Farnsworth, A., and Kelly, J. (2016). Nocturnally migrating songbirds drift when they can and compensate when they must. Scientific Reports 6, 1-8. Nature. Retrieved from: https://www.nature.com/articles/srep21249 Kranstauber,B., Weinzierl, R., Wikelski, M., Safi, K. (2015). Global aerial flyways allow efficient travelling. Ecology Letters. 18: 133. Retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ele.12528/full Liechti, F. (2006). Birds: blowin’ by the wind.Journal of Ornithology. 47: 202–211. Retrieved from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10336-006-0061-9. Reddy, G., Celani, A., Sejnowski, T., and Vergassola, M. (2016). Learning to soar in turbulent environments. PNAS. 113(33):E4877-84. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27482099 Shamoun-Baranes, J., Leshem, Y., Yom-Tov, Y., and Liech, O. (2003). Differential use of thermal convection by soaring birds over central Israel. The Condor. 105:208-218. Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/1370541. Leshem, Yossi. (2017) Professor of Life Science, Tel-Aviv University. Personal Communication.

6 ay önce

Are "Acts of God" Disappearing?

Considering humans' increased impact on the environment, we may want to reconsider whether there is still a place in our legal system for the Act of God defense. Thanks to all our viewers and supporters for an incredible year of videos! Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Act of God: A natural disaster that is outside of human influence or control, such that no one will be held responsible for the resulting damages. Reasonable precautions: The ordinary or usual precautions that a person would take to prevent damage from a natural disaster. ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Learn about some of the damage done in the flood of 1903: https://www.kshs.org/kansapedia/flood-of-1903/17221 _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Melissa Hayes Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Jessika Raisor Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Emily Elert, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Merritt Creamery Co. v. Atchison, T. & S. F. Ry. Co., 122 S.W. 322, 139 Mo. App. 149 (Mo. App., 1909). Herring, S. C., A. Hoell, M. P. Hoerling, J. P. Kossin, C. J. Schreck III, and P. A. Stott, Eds., 2016: Explaining Extreme Events of 2015 from a Climate Perspective. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 97 (12), S1–S145, doi:10.1175/BAMS -ExplainingExtremeEvents2015.1. Trenberth, K. E., Fasullo, J. T., & Shepherd, T. G. (2015). Attribution of climate extreme events. Nature Climate Change, 5(8), 725-730. doi:10.1038/nclimate2657. Stott, P. (2016). How climate change affects extreme weather events. Science, 352(6293), 1517-1518. doi:10.1126/science.aaf7271. Jill M. Fraley, Re-examining Acts of God, 27 Pace Envtl. L. Rev. 669 (2010) Available at: h6p://digitalcommons.pace.edu/pelr/vol27/iss3/4. Loimer, H., & Guarnieri, M. (1996). Accidents and acts of God: a history of the terms. American Journal of Public Health, 86(1), 101-107. doi:10.2105/ajph.86.1.101

7 ay önce

Why Pets Have Surprisingly Small Brains

Thanks to 23andMe for sponsoring this video! http://www.23andme.com/minuteearth If you live outside the US, click here: https://www.23andme.com/ When we domesticate an animal species, their brains shrink and they freak out less. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth And to our SPONSORS on YouTube. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Domesticated animal: a species of animal bred by humans over generations to become nonreactive and gain characteristics suitable for life as a farm animal or pet Tame animal: an individual animal raised in a way that it has become less dangerous and frightened of people Feral animal: an animal that escapes from captivity or domestication (& regains some similar & some different characteristics compared to its pre-domesticated state) "Fight or flight": an instinctive physiological response to a threatening situation that readies a creature to either to resist forcibly or escape Limbic system: the brain’s “panic button” - a system of nerves and networks near the bottom of the cortex that controls basic emotions (e.g. fear, pleasure, anger) and drives (e.g. hunger, sex, dominance) Telencephalon: the most developed and anterior part of the forebrain, consisting chiefly of the cerebral hemispheres, and the brain region that shrinks most in domesticated animals Domestication: a sustained multigenerational, mutualistic relationship in which one species (e.g. humans) assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another species (e.g. cows) in order to secure a more predictable supply of a resource of interest (e.g. milk/meat/traction), and through which the domesticated organisms gain advantage over individuals that remain outside this relationship (e.g. aurochs, which went extinct), thereby benefitting and often increasing the fitness of both species involved ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Brain Scoop video on brain size and intelligence: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hJW8jIDfP9E Russian Fox Domestication Experiment: https://goo.gl/5nWnXz What happens to domesticated animals & their brains when they escape back to the wild?: http://www.nature.com/news/when-chickens-go-wild-1.19195#/free%5C _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Keenan Parry & Ever Salazar (@unpuntocircular) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Agnvall, B. et al. 2017. Is evolution of domestication driven by tameness? A selective review with focus on chickens. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2017.09.006 Eberhard, W. G., & Wcislo, W. T. 2011. Grade changes in brain-body allometry: morphological and behavioural correlates of brain size in miniature spiders, insects and other invertebrates. Advances in Insect Physiology, 40, 155. http://www.stri.si.edu/sites/publications/PDFs/2011_Eberhard_Wcislo_AdvIns_Physiol.pdf Kruska, D. C. 2005. On the evolutionary significance of encephalization in some eutherian mammals: effects of adaptive radiation, domestication, and feralization. Brain, behavior and evolution, 65(2), 73-108. https://goo.gl/J86NEd Kruska, D. C. Personal Communication, Oct 2017. Marchetti, M. P., & Nevitt, G. A. 2003. Effects of hatchery rearing on brain structures of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Environmental biology of Fishes, 66(1), 9-14. https://goo.gl/GL6LWG Marchetti, M. Personal Communication, Oct 2017. Wright, D. Personal Communication, Oct 2017. Zeder, M. A. 2012. Pathways to animal domestication. Biodiversity in agriculture: Domestication, evolution and sustainability, 227-259. https://goo.gl/2xWSB8 Zeder, M. A. 2015. Core questions in domestication research. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(11), 3191-3198. http://www.pnas.org/content/112/11/3191.full Zeder, M. A. Personal Communication, Oct 2017.

7 ay önce

Why Do Some Animals Get Gigantic?

Get your first KiwiCo box free by going to http://www.kiwico.com/minuteearth Occasionally, internal or external factors change, allowing certain animals to become giant versions of themselves. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Spiracles: External respiratory openings on insects Carboniferous Period: The time period from 359-299 million years ago when the Earth’s oxygen levels increased rapidly. Square-Cube Law: A mathematical principle that describes the relationship between area and volume. Buoyancy: An upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an immersed object. Phytoplankton: Microscopic plants eaten by krill and other zooplankton. Baleen: A filter-feeding system inside the mouth of some whales. _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Kaiser, A., et al. (2007). Increase in tracheal investment with beetle size supports hypothesis of oxygen limitation on insect gigantism. 13198-13203. PNAS. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1941816/ Sander, P. Christian, et al. (2011). Biology of the sauropod dinosaurs:the evolution of gigantism. Biological Reviews. 86(1): 117–155. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3045712/ Taylor, M and Weder, M. (2013). Why sauropods had long necks; and why giraffes have short necks. PeerJ 1:e36. Retrieved from: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1209.5439.pdf. Verberk, W. and Bilton, D. (2011). Can Oxygen Set Thermal Limits in an Insect and Drive Gigantism? PLOS One. 6(7): e22610. Retrieved from: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0022610 Slater, G., Goldbogen, J., Pyenson, N. (2017). Independent evolution of baleen whale gigantism linked to Plio-Pleistocene ocean dynamics. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 284: 20170546. Retrieved from: http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/284/1855/20170546.

7 ay önce

What Are Brain Waves?

This video was sponsored by "Robot-Proof", written by Northeastern University's President, Joseph E. Aoun. Learn more here: https://goo.gl/uF5Kx8 Thank you to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth Even the parts of our brains that don't control physical movement show a lot of rhythm, and that might be integral to how our brains work. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: neural oscillation: better known as a "brainwave," a neural oscillation is repetitive, often rhythmic activity in the central nervous system. neurons can sync up with the help of pacemaker cells or structure, or through entrainment. entrainment: the ability of tons and tons of neurons to quickly sync up is due to something called entrainment – here's a cool demo of essentially how that works: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bl2aYFv_978 central pattern generator: neural networks that produce rhythmic, patterned electrical outputs. CPGs are usually relatively simple neural circuits and are responsible for virtually all the rhythmic motions you see in nature, from jellyfish swimming to human breathing. while we often think of our brains as reaction machines – like, we touch something hot and quickly pull away – central pattern generators don't need any stimulus to work. you can pull them out of an animal and put them in a petri dish and the neurons will still fire with the same rhythms. feature binding: when you see your cat and you know right away it's your cat...well, somehow, your brain is putting together all kinds of information about the object's shape, size, color, motion, position in your field of vision, and lots of other contextual clues to make that happen. neuroscientists call this "feature binding," and neural oscillations may be key to pulling it off. _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Emily Elert (@eelert) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Image Credits: Snake Crawling - BigfootHD https://www.shutterstock.com/video/clip-2582720-stock-footage-snake-crawling.html Greyhound running - Objectivity https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Iq_Oj6qzeIU Hummingbird - Smarter Every Day https://youtu.be/1VA8v1btKdQ?t=73 ___________________________________________ References: Buzsaki, G. Personal Communication, October 2017. Buzsaki, G. (2006) Rhythms of the Brain. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Gyorgy_Buzsaki/publication/223130267_Rhythms_of_The_Brain/links/00b4952bb0ae609ac9000000/Rhythms-of-The-Brain.pdf Cabron, J. Personal Communcation, October 2017. Engel, A.K. and Fries, P. and Singer, W. (2001) Dynamic predictions: Oscillations and synchrony in top–down processing. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2, pp 704-716. Retrieved from http://www.dankalia.com/science/neu127.pdf Getting, P.A. (1989) Emerging Principles Governing the Operation of Neural Networks. Annual Review of Neuroscience. Vol. 12:185-204 Llinas, R. Personal Communication, October 2017. Lisman, J. and Buzsaki, G. (2008) A Neural Coding Scheme Formed by the Combined Function of Gamma and Theta Oscillations. Schizophrenia Bulletin, Volume 34:5, pp 974–980. Retrieved from https://academic.oup.com/schizophreniabulletin/article/34/5/974/1881304 Lisman, J. Personal Communication, October 2017. Marder, E and Calabrese, R.L. (1996) Principles of rhythmic motor pattern generation. Physiological Reviews, 76(3), pp 687-717. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/1900/8ec50b0d0bcff24438c9a0eb57f9e33f7a85.pdf Marder, E. Personal Communication, October 2017. Singer, W. Personal Communication, October 2017.

8 ay önce

Why Bird Penises Are So Weird

Thanks to 23andMe for sponsoring this video! http://www.23andme.com/minuteearth Male birds have the largest genital diversity of any class of animals because their sex chromosomes make it easy to pass male-helping mutations down the line. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Sex chromosome: A chromosome involved in determining the sex of an individual. Cloaca: A posterior orifice that serves as the only exit for the gastrointestinal, urinary and genital tracts. Mutation: An alteration in the DNA sequence that makes up a gene. Sexually-selected Trait: A trait based on a mutation that confers a reproductive advantage. BMP4: A protein whose presence halts the growth of bird penises in the egg. ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: An article from The Week about some of the strangest penises in the animal kingdom: http://theweek.com/articles/474417/12-weirdest-animal-penises-earth-updated _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Brennan, P. and Prum, R. (2015). Mechanisms and Evidence of Genital Coevolution: The Roles of Natural Selection,Mate Choice, and Sexual Conflict. 1-21. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology. Retrieved from: http://cshperspectives.cshlp.org/content/7/7/a017749.abstract Brennan, P. (2013). Genital Evolution: Cock-a-Doodle-Don’t. Current Biology. R523-R525. Retrieved from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982213004430 Brennan, P., Birkhead, T., Zyskowski, K., van der Waagand, J., and Prum, R. (2008). Independent evolutionary reductions of the phallus in basal birds. Journal of Avian Biology, 39: 487-492. Retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.0908-8857.2008.04610.x/abstract. Briskie, J. and Montgomerie, R. (1997). Sexual selection and the intromittent organ of birds. Journal of Avian Biology. 28: 73-86. Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/3677097?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents Herrera, A., Brennan, P., and Cohn, M. (2014). Development of Avian External Genitalia: Interspecific Differences and Sexual Differentiation of the Male and Female Phallus. Sexual Development. 9: 43-52. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25011524. Reinhold, K. (1998). Sex linkage among genes controlling sexually selected traits. Sexual Selection. 44:1-7. Retrieved from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s002650050508. Image Credits: Mandarin Ducks - Francis C. Franklin https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pair_of_mandarin_ducks.jpg Gorillas - Based on photo by Wikimedia user No escape https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gorillafamily.JPG Lake Duck Penis - Kevin McCracken (Published in Nature 2001)

8 ay önce