Deep Look

Deep Look
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DEEP LOOK is a science video series that explores big science by going very, very small, from KQED and PBS Digital Studios.

We use macro photography and microscopy in glorious 4K resolution, to see science up close... really, really close.

* NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! *

SUBSCRIBE: http://goo.gl/8NwXqt

On Twitter:

Lauren Sommer: Host/Writer @lesommer
Joshua Cassidy: Lead Producer / Cinematographer @Jkcassidy
Teodros Hailye: Animator
Elliott Kennerson: Producer / Editor @elliott_KQED
Gabriela Quiros: Coordinating Producer
Craig Rosa: Series Producer @craigrosa
Seth G. Samuel: Composer @sethgsamuel
Kia Simon: Editor and Motion Graphics: @KiaSimon

Like hummingbirds? Slugs? Owls? Squid? Mosquitoes? See the unseen and discover wildlife, biology, chemistry, and nature videos.

--
KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media.

The House Centipede is Fast, Furious, and Just So Extra | Deep Look

Please follow us on Patreon! https://www.patreon.com/deeplook Take the PBSDS survey: https://to.pbs.org/2018YTSurvey Voracious, venomous and hella leggy, house centipedes are masterful predators with a knack for fancy footwork. But not all their legs are made for walking, they put some to work in other surprising ways. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK: an ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. Recognizable for their striking (some might say, repulsive) starburst-like shape, house centipedes have far fewer than the 100 legs their name suggests. They’re born with a modest eight, a count that grows to 30 as they reach adulthood. If 30 legs sound like more than one critter really needs – perhaps it is. Over the last 450 million years or so, when centipedes split off from other arthropods, evolution has turned some of those walking limbs into other useful and versatile tools. When it hunts, for example, the house centipede uses its legs as a rope to restrain prey in a tactic called “lassoing.” The tip of each leg is so finely segmented and flexible that it can coil around its victim to prevent escape. The centipede’s venom-injecting fangs, called forciples, are also modified legs. Though shorter and thicker than the walking limbs, they are multi-jointed , which makes them far more dexterous than the fangs of insects and spiders, which hinge in only one plane. Because of this dexterity, the centipede’s forciples not only inject venom, but also hold prey in place while the centipede feeds. Then they take a turn as a grooming tool. The centipede passes its legs through the forciples to clean and lubricate their sensory hairs. Scientists have long noticed that because of their length and the fact that the centipede holds them aloft when it walks, these back legs give the appearance of a second pair antennae. The house centipede looks like it has two heads. In evolution, when an animal imitates itself, it’s called automimicry. Automimicry occurs in some fish, birds and butterflies, and usually serves to divert predators. New research suggests that’s not the whole story with the house centipede. Electron microscopy conducted on the centipede’s legs has revealed as many sensory hairs, or sensilla, on them as on the antennae. The presence of so many sensory hairs suggest the centipede’s long back legs are not merely dummies used in a defensive ploy, but serve a special function, possibly in mate selection. During courtship, both the male and female house centipede slowly raise and lower their antennae and back legs, followed by mutual tapping and probing. --- Are house centipedes dangerous? Though they do have venom, house centipedes don’t typically bite humans. --- Where do house centipedes live? House centipedes live anywhere where the humidity hovers around 90 percent. That means the moist places in the house: garages, bathrooms, basements. Sometimes their presence can indicate of a leaky roof or pipe. --- Do house centipedes have 100 legs? No. An adult house centipede has 30. Only one group of centipedes, called the soil centipedes, actually have a hundred legs or more. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2018/09/25/the-house-centipede-is-fast-furious-and-hella-leggy ---+ For more information: Visit the centipede page of the Natural History Museum, London: http://www.nhm.ac.uk/our-science/our-work/origins-evolution-and-futures/centipede-systematics.html ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: How Kittens Go From Clueless to Cute https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o1xRlkNwQy8 This Adorable Sea Slug is a Sneaky Little Thief https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KLVfWKxtfow ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! Origin of Everything: Why Do People Have Pets? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k2nW7_2VUMc Hot Mess: What if Carbon Emissions Stopped Tomorrow? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A4kX9xKGeEw ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by the Templeton Religion Trust and the Templeton World Charity Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation Fund and the members of KQED.

20 hours ago

How Kittens Go From Clueless to Cute | Deep Look

Please support us on Patreon! https://www.patreon.com/deeplook Take the PBSDS survey: https://to.pbs.org/2018YTSurvey Fluffy kittens chasing a ball are beyond adorable -- but they sure aren't born that way. Practically deaf and blind, in their first few weeks they need constant warmth and milk to survive. This is a huge challenge for animal shelters, so they're working with researchers on ways to help motherless kittens flourish. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. -- Every year, hundreds of thousands of kittens end up in animal shelters, in need of permanent homes. But raising orphaned newborns into healthy, fluffy, frisky two-month-olds ready to be adopted requires an enormous behind-the-scenes effort. All across the country, volunteer foster parents log many sleepless nights bottle-feeding kittens every few hours. So researchers and shelters are trying to figure out ways to make it easier. “A lot of people think fostering is taking kittens home and playing with them,” said Penny Dougherty, chief executive director of Kitten Central of Placer County, an animal shelter she runs from her house in Newcastle, California, 30 miles northeast of Sacramento. Kitten Central receives most of its kittens from Placer County Animal Services. Dougherty cares for kittens up to one month old, as well as feral and stray cats with litters. Once the kittens weigh at least two pounds and have been spayed and neutered, she returns them to the agency so they can put them up for adoption. “They’re very happy to have our services,” said Dougherty, “because so many shelters have to euthanize.” When the days start getting longer, around January, cats start breeding. March is the beginning of what’s known among shelters as “kitten season.” The flow of kittens doesn’t slow down until November. “Kitten season is kind of one of the banes of shelter existence,” said Cynthia Delany, supervising shelter veterinarian at Yolo County Animal Services, in Woodland, west of Sacramento. “Six or seven months out of the year we’re just flooded with these little guys.” To steer clear of inundating shelters with newborn kittens, Delany’s advice is to leave any litters you might encounter alone unless they’re in immediate danger. Most of the time their mom will return, she said, so check back periodically. In an effort to lessen the load on foster parents and increase newborn kittens’ chances of survival, Mikel Maria Delgado, a postdoctoral researcher in the School of Veterinary Medicine at the University of California, Davis, is joining forces with Kitten Central and other animal shelters to figure out if there are optimum temperature and humidity levels that make it possible to feed newborn kittens less frequently. She has distributed incubators to the groups so that two or three kittens can be kept in each one for about three weeks. ---How long do kittens' eyes stay closed? During the first week-and-a-half of their lives, kittens’ eyes are sealed closed and their ears are folded up, making them practically blind and deaf. They’re born this way because their brains aren’t developed enough to use those senses. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://www.kqed.org/science/1930803/how-kittens-go-from-clueless-to-cute ---+ For more information: If you find a litter of newborn kittens: https://eastbayspca.org/get-involved/community-resources/feral-cats/stray-cats-feral-cats-kittens/ ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: Why Does Your Cat’s Tongue Feel Like Sandpaper? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9h_QtLol75I&t=24s Watch This Bee Build Her Bee-jeweled Nest https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oPbH1YhsdP8 ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from PBS Digital Studios! It’s Okay to Be Smart: Why Do Disney Princesses All Look Like Babies? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T1gzpEktyKo PBS Eons: The Story of Saberteeth https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hbjIhPHRZgc ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by the Templeton Religion Trust and the Templeton World Charity Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation Fund and the members of KQED.

2 weeks ago

This Adorable Sea Slug is a Sneaky Little Thief | Deep Look

Take the PBSDS survey: https://to.pbs.org/2018YTSurvey Explore our VR slug and support us on Patreon! https://www.patreon.com/deeplook Nudibranchs may look cute, squishy and defenseless ... but watch out. These brightly-colored sea slugs aren't above stealing weapons from their prey. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. The summer months bring low morning tides along the California coast, providing an opportunity to see one of the state’s most unusual inhabitants, sea slugs. Also called nudibranchs, many of these relatives of snails are brightly colored and stand out among the seaweed and anemones living next to them in tidepools. “Some of them are bright red, blue, yellow -- you name it,” said Terry Gosliner, senior curator of invertebrate zoology and geology at the California Academy of Sciences in San Francisco. “They're kind of designer slugs.” But without a protective shell, big jaws or sharp claws, how do these squishy little creatures get away with such flamboyant colors in a habitat full of predators? As it turns out, the nudibranchs’ colors serve as a warning to predators: These sea slugs are packing some very sophisticated defenses. And some aren’t above stealing weapons from their prey. Gosliner and Brenna Green and Emily Otstott, graduate students at San Francisco State University, were out at dawn earlier this summer searching tidepools and floating docks around the Bay Area. They want to learn more about how these delicate little sea slugs survive and how changing ocean temperatures might threaten their futures. Nudibranchs come in a staggering variety of shapes and sizes. Many accumulate toxic or bad-tasting chemicals from their prey, causing predators like fish and crabs to learn that the flashy colors mean the nudibranch wouldn’t make a good meal. --- What are nudibranchs? Nudibranchs are snails that lost their shell over evolutionary time. Since they don’t have a shell for protection, they have to use other ways to defend themselves like accumulating toxic chemicals in their flesh to make them taste bad to predators. Some species of nudibranchs eat relatives of jellyfish and accumulate the stingers within their bodies for defense. --- Why do nudibranchs have such bright colors? The bright colors serve as a signal to the nudibranch’s predators that they are not good to eat. If a fish or crab bites a nudibranch, it learns to associate the bad taste with the bright colors which tends to make them reluctant to bite a nudibranch with those colors in the future. --- What does nudibranch mean? The word nudibranch comes from Latin. It means naked gills. They got that name because some species of nudibranchs have an exposed ring of gills on their back that they use to breath. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://www.kqed.org/science/1929993/this-adorable-sea-slug-is-a-sneaky-little-thief ---+ For more information: Learn more about Terry Gosliner’s work with nudibranchs https://www.calacademy.org/staff/ibss/invertebrate-zoology-and-geology/terrence-gosliner Learn more about Chris Lowe’s work with plankton http://lowe.stanford.edu/ Learn more about Jessica Goodheart’s study of nematocyst sequestration https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/ivb.12154 ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: From Drifter to Dynamo: The Story of Plankton | Deep Look https://youtu.be/jUvJ5ANH86I For Pacific Mole Crabs It's Dig or Die | Deep Look https://youtu.be/tfoYD8pAsMw The Amazing Life of Sand | Deep Look https://youtu.be/VkrQ9QuKprE ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from PBS Digital Studios! Why Are Hurricanes Getting Stronger? | Hot Mess https://youtu.be/2E1Nt7JQRzc When Fish Wore Armor | Eons https://youtu.be/5pVTZH1LyTw Why Do We Wash Our Hands After Going to the Bathroom? | Origin of Everything https://youtu.be/fKlpGs34-_g ---+ Follow KQED Science and Deep Look: Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/kqedscience/ Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience KQED Science on kqed.org: http://www.kqed.org/science Facebook Watch: https://www.facebook.com/DeepLookPBS/ Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/deeplook ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by the Templeton Religion Trust and the Templeton World Charity Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation Fund and the members of KQED. #deeplook #nudibranch #seaslug

4 weeks ago

Watch This Bee Build Her Bee-jeweled Nest | Deep Look

Take the PBSDS survey: https://to.pbs.org/2018YTSurvey Please support us on Patreon! https://www.patreon.com/deeplook Pollinator. Mason. Jeweler. A female blue orchard bee is a multitasking master. She fashions exquisite nests out of mud and pollen that resemble pieces of jewelry. And in the process, she helps us grow nuts and fruits. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * A new type of bee is buzzing through California's orchards. And researchers are hoping that the iridescent, greenish insect may help provide a more efficient way to pollinate nuts and fruits in an era when traditional honeybees have struggled. Unlike honeybees, blue orchard bees don’t sting humans. And instead of building large colonies with thousands of worker bees caring for eggs laid by a queen bee, female blue orchard bees work alone to build their nests and stock them with food. They’re solitary bees, like most of the 4,000 species of bees in North America. Blue orchard bees, which are native to the United States, are of increasing interest to scientists, government agencies and farmers for their ability to pollinate almonds, sweet cherries and other tree fruits more efficiently than honeybees. “This is, I think, the moment for these bees to shine,” said entomologist Natalie Boyle, who studies blue orchard bees at the United States Department of Agriculture in Logan, Utah. Boyle works with almond growers in California, whose crop is worth $5.2 billion a year and who rely heavily on honeybees to pollinate their orchards every February. Research has found that 400 female blue orchard bees are as effective at pollinating almonds as the more than 10,000 bees in a honeybee hive, said Boyle. Between 40 and 50 percent of honeybee colonies die each year around the country, according to the yearly National Honey Bee Survey, carried out by universities with the sponsorship of the USDA and the California Almond Board, among others. Finding other bees that could work side by side with honeybees could offer what Boyle calls “pollination insurance.” --- What is a mason bee? The blue orchard bee is a mason bee. Females build their nests out of mud that they collect with two huge pincer-like tools on their face called mandibles. In nature, they build their nests in places like hollow twigs. But they will also build them in pencil-wide drill holes in a wood block. --- What makes blue orchard bees good pollinators? One thing that makes blue orchard bees good pollinators are hairs on their abdomen called scopa, on which they collect and spread pollen. Blue orchard bees are particularly good at pollinating almonds and tree fruits like cherries and apples because they love foraging in their flowers. And they’re particularly well-suited to pollinate almonds, which are in bloom in February, when it’s chilly in California’s Central Valley, because they will fly around and forage at a cooler temperature than honeybees. ---+ Read the article on KQED Science: https://www.kqed.org/science/1928378/watch-this-bee-build-her-bee-jeweled-nest ---+ For more information: Download the free book How to Manage the Blue Orchard Bee: https://www.sare.org/Learning-Center/Books/How-to-Manage-the-Blue-Orchard-Bee ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: This Vibrating Bumblebee Unlocks a Flower’s Hidden Treasure https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SZrTndD1H10 What Do Earwigs Do With Those Pincers Anyway? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HuOnqWpIL9E ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from PBS Digital Studios! PBS Eons: When Insects First Flew https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7QMcXEj7IT0 CrashCourse: The Plants & The Bees: Plant Reproduction - CrashCourse Biology #38 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ExaQ8shhkw8 ---+ Follow KQED Science: Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/kqedscience/ Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience KQED Science on kqed.org: http://www.kqed.org/science Facebook Watch: https://www.facebook.com/DeepLookPBS/ Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/deeplook ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by the Templeton Religion Trust and the Templeton World Charity Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation Fund and the members of KQED. #deeplook #blueorchardbee #wildlifedocumentary

1 month ago

How Elephants Listen ... With Their Feet | Deep Look

Love Deep Look? You can support us on Patreon! https://www.patreon.com/deeplook African elephants may have magnificent ears, but on the savanna, they communicate over vast distances by picking up underground signals with their sensitive, fatty feet. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. Thousands of elephants roam Etosha National Park in Namibia, a nation in southwest Africa, taking turns at the park’s numerous watering holes. The elephants exchange information by emitting low-frequency sounds that travel dozens of miles under the ground on the savannah. The sound waves come from the animals’ huge vocal chords, and distant elephants “hear” the signals with their highly sensitive feet. The sound waves spread out through the ground and air. By triangulating the two types of signals using both ears and feet, elephants can tune into the direction, distance and content of a message. Seismic communication is the key to understanding the complex dynamics of elephant communities. There are seismic messages that are sent passively, such as when elephants eavesdrop on each others’ footsteps. More active announcements include alarm cries, mating calls and navigation instructions to the herd. Seismic communication works with elephants because of the incredible sensitivity of their feet. Like all mammals, including humans, elephants have receptors called Pacinian corpuscles, or PCs, in their skin. PCs are hard-wired to a part of the brain where touch signals are processed, called the somatosensory cortex. In elephants, PCs are clustered around the edge of the foot. When picking up a far-off signal, elephants sometimes press their feet into the ground, enlarging its surface by as much as 20 percent. Strictly speaking, when elephants pick up ground vibrations in thei feet, it’s their sense of feeling, not hearing, at work. Typically hearing happens without physical contact, when airborne vibrations hit the eardrum, causing the tiny bones of the inner ear tremble and transmit a message to the brain along the auditory nerve. But in elephants, some ground vibrations actually reach the hearing centers of the brain through a process called bone conduction. By modeling how the elephant’s inner ear bones respond to seismic sound waves, scientists are hoping to use a bone-conduction approach develop new and better hearing aids for people. Instead of amplifying sound waves through the ear canal, these devices would transmit sound vibrations into a person’s jawbone or skull. --- Where did you film this episode? It was filmed in Etosha National Park in Namibia, at Menasha watering hole, which is closed to the public. We also filmed with the elephants at the Performing Animal Welfare Society (PAWS) sanctuary in San Andreas, Calif. --- Do all elephants communicate seismically? Both species of elephants – Asian and African – can pick up vibrations in their feet. There are some differences in anatomy between the two species, which cannot interbreed. Those include attributes related to their hearing, and probably arose as adaptations to their distinct habitats. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2018/07/17/how-elephants-listen-with-their-feet ---+ For more information: Visit Caitlin O’Connell-Rodwell’s non-profit, Utopia Scientific. You could even go with her to Africa: http://www.utopiascientific.org/Research/mushara.html Support the Performing Animal Welfare Society (PAWS): http://www.pawsweb.org ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: These Whispering, Walking Bats Are Onto Something https://youtu.be/l2py029bwhA For These Tiny Spiders, It's Sing or Get Served https://youtu.be/y7qMqAgCqME ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! Hot Mess: What If We Burned All The World's Fossil Fuels? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fxJc2csvpLY Above The Noise: Is Your Sunscreen Hurting Coral Reefs? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MfdSgFlzQUU ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by the Templeton Religion Trust and the Templeton World Charity Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation Fund and the members of KQED. #deeplook #elephant #seismiccommunication

2 months ago

What Do Earwigs Do With Those Pincers Anyway? | Deep Look

Join Deep Look on Patreon NOW! https://www.patreon.com/deeplook Earwigs are equipped with some pretty imposing pincers on their rear, and they're not afraid to use them. But when it comes to these appendages, size isn't everything. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. Many animals seem to show a preference for symmetry in a potential mate. It can be a clue that the mate has the genes necessary to develop properly and thrive in an environment full of stresses and dangers. But in some critters buck the trend. Like the earwig, a diminutive insect found on every continent except Antarctica. Andrew ZInk, an associate professor of biology at San Francisco State University, has been looking at how symmetry affects earwigs success when it comes to social interactions. He’s studying maritime earwigs, a larger and more powerful cousin to the common European earwig you might find in your backyard. Both creatures bear fearsome looking pincers on their backsides. And they aren’t afraid to use them to defend themselves. Zink knows all about that. --- Do earwigs climb into your ear? The quick answer is no. Earwigs are not interested in climbing into your ear to lay their eggs or otherwise. They’re no more likely than any other bug to accidentally find its way into you ear. The name earwig come from the old english words for ear and insect. It may have been named after the shape of the common European earwig’s wings, which when extended resemble a human ear. --- Do earwigs pinch people? Earwigs will use their pincers to defend themselves, but the pinch is typically not strong enough to be considered dangerous. --- Do earwigs fly? Male common European earwigs have wings and can fly to disperse and find mates. Females do not have wings or fly. Neither male nor female maritime earwigs have wings or fly. --- What do earwigs eat? Most earwigs are scavengers and omnivores. In addition to scavenging and eating plants, the common European earwigs also hunts small prey like aphids. Maritime earwigs are carnivorous hunting smaller arthropods like sand hoppers. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2018/06/26/what-do-earwigs-do-with-those-pincers-anyway/ ---+ For more information: Biologists probe asymmetric warfare between earwigs https://news.sfsu.edu/biologists-probe-asymmetric-warfare-between-earwigs Asymmetric Forceps Increase Fighting Success among Males of Similar size in the Maritime Earwig https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1439-0310.2012.02086.x Sexual selection by the seashore: the roles of body size and weaponry in mate choice and competition in the maritime earwig (Anisolabis maritima) http://viyengar.clasit.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/2017KendallBarIyengarBES-SexualSelectionSeashoreEarwigs.pdf ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: Watch These Cunning Snails Stab and Swallow Fish Whole | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jYMjLgPFSso This Is Why Water Striders Make Terrible Lifeguards | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E2unnSK7WTE&t=19s Take Two Leeches and Call Me in the Morning | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O-0SFWPLaII ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from PBS Digital Studios! What the World’s Cutest Animal Can Teach Us About Saving Ourselves | Hot Mess https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IF8ym4g2SCU The Deadpool Salamander | It's Okay To Be Smart https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uGutfyDOmu0 Why Do We Eat Artificial Flavors? | Origin Of Everything https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iNaJ31EV13U ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by the Templeton Religion Trust and the Templeton World Charity Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation Fund and the members of KQED. #deeplook #earwig #pincers

2 months ago

You'd Never Guess What an Acorn Woodpecker Eats | Deep Look

OK. Maybe you would. But the lengths they have to go to to stock up for the winter *will* surprise you. When you see how carefully they arrange each acorn, you might just need to reorganize your pantry. Join Deep Look on Patreon NOW! https://www.patreon.com/deeplook You can learn more about CuriosityStream at https://curiositystream.com/deeplook . SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * Have you ever wondered why woodpeckers pound so incessantly? In the case of acorn woodpeckers – gregarious black and red birds in California’s oak forests – they’re building an intricate pantry, a massive, well-organized stockpile of thousands of acorns to carry them through the winter. “They’re the only animals that I know of that store their acorns individually in holes in trees,” said biologist Walter Koenig, of the Cornell Lab of Ornithology, who has studied acorn woodpeckers for decades at the University of California’s Hastings Natural History Reservation in Carmel Valley. Over generations, acorn woodpeckers can drill thousands of small holes into one or several trees close to each other, giving these so-called granaries the appearance of Swiss cheese. This sets them apart from other birds that drop acorns into already-existing cavities in trees, and animals like squirrels and jays that bury acorns in the ground. In spring and summer, hikers in California commonly see acorn woodpeckers while the birds feed their chicks and care for their granaries. They don’t mind people staring at them and they’re easy to find. They greet each other with loud cries that sound like “waka-waka-waka.” They’re also found in Oregon, Arizona, New Mexico and Texas, and all the way south to Colombia. These avian performers are constantly tapping, drilling and pounding at their granaries. “They’ll usually have a central granary, maybe two trees that a group is using,” said Koenig. “Those trees are going to be close together.” Acorn woodpeckers make their granaries in pines, oaks, sycamores, redwoods and even in the palm trees on the Stanford University campus. Their holes rarely hurt the trees. The birds only bore into the bark, where there’s no sap, or they make their granaries in snags. “They don’t want sap in the hole because it will cause the acorn to rot,” said Koenig. “The point of storing the acorns is that it protects them from other animals getting them and it allows them to dry out.” --- What is an acorn? It’s the fruit of the oak. --- Do acorn woodpeckers only eat acorns? In the spring, acorn woodpeckers have their choice of food. They catch insects, eat oak flowers and suck the sap out of shallow holes on trees like coast live oaks. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://www.kqed.org/science/1925251/youd-never-guess-what-an-acorn-woodpecker-eats ---+ For more information: Cornell Lab of Ornithology: https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Acorn_Woodpecker/overview ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: What Gall! The Crazy Cribs of Parasitic Wasps https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lOgP5NzcTuA How Ticks Dig in With a Mouth Full of Hooks https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_IoOJu2_FKE Why is the Hungry Caterpillar So Dang Hungry? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=el_lPd2oFV4 ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from PBS Digital Studios! Eons: Why Triassic Animals Were Just the Weirdest https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=moxu_uTemNg Physics Girl: Why this skateboarding trick should be IMPOSSIBLE ft. Rodney Mullen https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yFRPhi0jhGc ---+ Follow KQED Science and Deep Look: Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/kqedscience/ Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience KQED Science on kqed.org: http://www.kqed.org/science Facebook Watch: https://www.facebook.com/DeepLookPBS/ Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/deeplook ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by the Templeton Religion Trust and the Templeton World Charity Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation Fund and the members of KQED. #deeplook

3 months ago

Watch These Cunning Snails Stab and Swallow Fish Whole | Deep Look

Join Deep Look on Patreon NOW! https://www.patreon.com/deeplook Cone Snails have an arsenal of tools and weapons under their pretty shells. These reef-dwelling hunters nab their prey in microseconds, then slowly eat them alive. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. New research shows that cone snails — ocean-dwelling mollusks known for their brightly colored shells — attack their prey faster than almost any member of the animal kingdom. There are hundreds of species of these normally slow-moving hunters found in oceans across the world. They take down fish, worms and other snails using a hollow, harpoon-like tooth that acts like a spear and a hypodermic needle. When they impale their prey, cone snails inject a chemical cocktail that subdues their meal and gives them time to dine at their leisure. Cone snails launch their harpoons so quickly that scientists were previously unable to capture the movement on camera, making it impossible to calculate just how speedy these snails are. Now, using super-high-speed video, researchers have filmed the full flight of the harpoon for the first time. From start to finish, the harpoon’s flight takes less than 200 micro-seconds. That’s one five-thousandth of a second. It launches with an acceleration equivalent to a bullet fired from a pistol. So how do these sedentary snails pull off such a high-octane feat? Hydrostatic pressure — the pressure from fluid — builds within the half of the snail’s proboscis closest to its body, locked behind a tight o-ring of muscle. When it comes time to strike, the muscle relaxes, and the venom-laced fluid punches into the harpoon’s bulbous base. This pressure launches the harpoon out into the snail’s unsuspecting prey. As fast as the harpoon launches, it comes to an even more abrupt stop. The base of the harpoon gets caught at the end of the proboscis so the snail can reel in its meal. The high-speed action doesn’t stop with the harpoon. Cone snail venom acts fast, subduing fish in as little as a few seconds. The venom is filled with unique molecules, broadly referred to as conotoxins. The composition of cone snail venom varies from species to species, and even between individuals of the same species, creating a library of potential new drugs that researchers are eager to mine. In combination, these chemicals work together to rapidly paralyze a cone snail’s prey. Individually, some molecules from cone snail venom can provide non-opioid pain relief, and could potentially treat Parkinson’s disease or cancer. --- Where do cone snails live? There are 500 species of cone snails living in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, the Caribbean and Red Seas, and the Florida coast. --- Can cone snails kill humans? Most of them do not. Only eight of those 500 species, including the geography cone, have been known to kill humans. --- Why are scientists interested in cone snails? Cone snail venom is derived from thousands of small molecules call peptides that the snail makes under its shell. These peptides produce different effects on cells, which scientists hope to manipulate in the treatment of various diseases. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://wp.me/p6iq8L-84uC ---+ For more information: Here’s what WebMD says about treating a cone snail sting: https://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/cone-snail-sting ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: This Mushroom Starts Killing You Before You Even Realize It https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bl9aCH2QaQY Take Two Leeches and Call Me in the Morning https://youtu.be/O-0SFWPLaII ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! Space Time: Quantum Mechanics Playlist https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-IfmgyXs7z8&list=PLsPUh22kYmNCGaVGuGfKfJl-6RdHiCjo1 Above The Noise: Endangered Species: Worth Saving from Extinction? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h5eTqjzQZDY ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by the Templeton Religion Trust and the Templeton World Charity Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation Fund and the members of KQED. #deeplook

3 months ago

You've Heard of a Murder of Crows. How About a Crow Funeral? | Deep Look

Join Deep Look on Patreon NOW! https://www.patreon.com/deeplook They may be dressed in black, but crow funerals aren't the solemn events that we hold for our dead. These birds cause a ruckus around their fallen friend. Are they just scared, or is there something deeper going on? SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * It’s a common site in many parks and backyards: Crows squawking. But groups of the noisy black birds may not just be raising a fuss, scientists say. They may be holding a funeral. Kaeli Swift, a Ph.D. candidate at the University of Washington’s Avian Conservation Lab in Seattle, is studying how crows learn about danger from each other and how they respond to seeing one of their own who has died. Unlike the majority of animals, crows react strongly to seeing a fellow member of their species has died, mobbing together and raising a ruckus. Only a few animals like whales, elephants and some primates, have such strong reactions. To study exactly what may be going on on, Swift developed an experiment that involved exposing local crows in Seattle neighborhoods to a dead taxidermied crow in order to study their reaction. “It’s really incredible,” she said. “They’re all around in the trees just staring at you and screaming at you.” Swift calls these events ‘crow funerals’ and they are the focus of her research. --- What do crows eat? Crows are omnivores so they’ll eat just about anything. In the wild they eat insects, carrion, eggs seeds and fruit. Crows that live around humans eat garbage. --- What’s the difference between crows and ravens? American crows and common ravens may look similar but ravens are larger with a more robust beak. When in flight, crow tail feathers are approximately the same length. Raven tail feathers spread out and look like a fan. Ravens also tend to emit a croaking sound compared to the caw of a crow. Ravens also tend to travel in pairs while crows tend to flock together in larger groups. Raven will sometimes prey on crows. --- Why do crows chase hawks? Crows, like animals whose young are preyed upon, mob together and harass dangerous predators like hawks in order to exclude them from an area and protect their offspring. Mobbing also teaches new generations of crows to identify predators. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://www.kqed.org/science/1923458/youve-heard-of-a-murder-of-crows-how-about-a-crow-funeral/ ---+ For more information: Kaeli Swift’s Corvid Research website https://corvidresearch.blog/ University of Washington Avian Conservation Laboratory http://sefs.washington.edu/research.acl/ ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: Why Do Tumbleweeds Tumble? | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dATZsuPdOnM Upside-Down Catfish Doesn't Care What You Think | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eurCBOJMrsE Take Two Leeches and Call Me in the Morning | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O-0SFWPLaII ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from PBS Digital Studios! Why Climate Change is Unjust | Hot Mess https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q5KjpYK12_c Is Breakfast the Most Important Meal? | Origin Of Everything https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AxIOGqHQqZM How the Squid Lost Its Shell | PBS Eons https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S4vxoP-IF2M ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by the Templeton Religion Trust and the Templeton World Charity Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation Fund and the members of KQED. #deeplook

4 months ago

Why Do Tumbleweeds Tumble? | Deep Look

You can learn more about CuriosityStream at https://curiositystream.com/deeplook . The silent star of classic Westerns is a plant on a mission. It starts out green and full of life. It even grows flowers. But to reproduce effectively it needs to turn into a rolling brown skeleton. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. Tumbleweeds might be the iconic props of classic Westerns. But in real life, they’re not only a noxious weed, but one that moves around. Pushed by gusts of wind, they can overwhelm entire neighborhoods, as happened recently in Victorville, California, or become a threat for drivers and an expensive nuisance for farmers. “They tumble across highways and can cause accidents,” said Mike Pitcairn, who tracks tumbleweeds at the California Department of Food and Agriculture in Sacramento. “They pile up against fences and homes.” And tumbleweeds aren’t even originally from the West. Genetic tests have shown that California’s most common tumbleweed, known as Russian thistle, likely came from Ukraine, said retired plant population biologist Debra Ayres, who studied tumbleweeds at the University of California, Davis. A U.S. Department of Agriculture employee, L. H. Dewey, wrote in 1893 that Russian thistle had arrived in the U.S. through South Dakota in flaxseed imported from Europe in the 1870s. “It has been known in Russia many years,” Dewey wrote, “and has quite as bad a reputation in the wheat regions there as it has in the Dakotas.” This is where the name Russian thistle originates, said Ayres, although tumbleweeds aren’t thistles. The weed spread quickly through the United States — on rail cars, through contamination of agricultural seeds and by tumbling. “They tumble to disperse the seeds,” said Ayres, “and thereby reduce competition.” A rolling tumbleweed spreads out tens of thousands of seeds so that they all get plenty of sunlight and space. Tumbleweeds grow well in barren places like vacant lots or the side of the road, where they can tumble unobstructed and there’s no grass, which their seedlings can’t compete with. --- Where does a tumbleweed come from? Tumbleweeds start out attached to the soil. Seedlings, which look like blades of grass, sprout at the end of winter. By summer, Russian thistle plants take on their round shape and grow flowers. Inside each flower, a fruit with a seed develops. Other plants attract animals with tasty fruits, and get them to carry away their seeds and disperse them when they poop. Tumbleweeds developed a different evolutionary strategy. Starting in late fall, they dry out and die, their seeds nestled between prickly leaves. Gusts of wind easily break dead tumbleweeds from their roots and they roll away, spreading their seeds as they go. --- How big do tumbleweeds grow? Mike Pitcairn, of the California Department of Food and Agriculture, said that in the state’s San Joaquin Valley they can grow to be more than 6 feet tall. --- Are tumbleweeds dangerous? Yes. They can cause traffic accidents or be a fire hazard if they pile up near buildings. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://www.kqed.org/science/1922987/why-do-tumbleweeds-tumble/ ---+ For more information on the history and biology of Russian thistle, here’s a paper by Debra Ayres and colleagues: https://naldc.nal.usda.gov/download/28657/PDF ---+ More great Deep Look episodes: How Ticks Dig In With a Mouth Full of Hooks https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_IoOJu2_FKE This Giant Plant Looks Like Raw Meat and Smells Like Dead Rat https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ycUNj_Hv4_Y Upside-Down Catfish Doesn't Care What You Think https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eurCBOJMrsE ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! Above the Noise: Why Is Vaping So Popular? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P9zps5LsVXs Hot Mess: What Happened to Nuclear Power? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_jEXZZDU6Gk ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by the Templeton Religion Trust and the Templeton World Charity Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation Fund and the members of KQED. #deeplook

4 months ago

Thank you for your votes! 2018 Webby Awards

Thanks everyone! We did not win but we're honored to be a finalist in the competition. Deep Look was a 🎇2018 WEBBY NOMINEE 🎇 for Best Science & Education Channel!! For those of you who don't know, the Webbys are kind of like the Oscars of the internet. And you helped us *win* last year - one of our videos "How Mosquitoes Use Six Needles to Suck Your Blood" won Best Science & Education Video of 2017! *** DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the David B. Gold Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook

5 months ago

Upside-Down Catfish Doesn't Care What You Think

You might suppose this catfish is sick, or just confused. But swimming belly-up actually helps it camouflage and breathe better than its right-side-up cousins. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. Normally, an upside-down fish in your tank is bad news. As in, it’s time for a new goldfish. That’s because most fish have an internal air sac called a “swim bladder” that allows them to control their buoyancy and orientation. They fill the bladder with air when they want to rise, and deflate it when they want to sink. Fish without swim bladders, like sharks, have to swim constantly to keep from dropping to the bottom. If an aquarium fish is listing to one side or flops over on its back, it often means it has swim bladder disease, a potentially life-threatening condition usually brought on parasites, overfeeding, or high nitrate levels in the water. But for a few remarkable fish, being upside-down means everything is great. In fact, seven species of catfish native to Central Africa live most of their lives upended. These topsy-turvy swimmers are anatomically identical to their right-side up cousins, despite having such an unusual orientation. People’s fascination with the odd alignment of these fish goes back centuries. Studies of these quizzical fish have found a number of reasons why swimming upside down makes a lot of sense. In an upside-down position, fish produce a lot less wave drag. That means upside-down catfish do a better job feeding on insect larvae at the waterline than their right-side up counterparts, who have to return to deeper water to rest. There’s something else at the surface that’s even more important to a fish’s survival than food: oxygen. The gas essential to life readily dissolves from the air into the water, where it becomes concentrated in a thin layer at the waterline — right where the upside-down catfish’s mouth and gills are perfectly positioned to get it. Scientists estimate that upside-down catfishes have been working out their survival strategy for as long at 35 million years. Besides their breathing and feeding behavior, the blotched upside-down catfish from the Congo Basin has also evolved a dark patch on its underside to make it harder to see against dark water. That coloration is remarkable because it’s the opposite of most sea creatures, which tend to be darker on top and lighter on the bottom, a common adaptation called “countershading” that offsets the effects of sunlight. The blotched upside-down catfish’s “reverse” countershading has earned it the scientific name negriventris, which means black-bellied. --- How many kinds of fish swim upside down? A total of seven species in Africa swim that way. Upside-down swimming may have evolved independent in a few of the species – and at least one more time in a catfish from Asia. --- How do fish stay upright? They have an air-filled swim bladder on the inside that that they can fill or deflate to maintain balance or to move up or down in the water column. --- What are the benefits of swimming upside down? Upside down, a fish swims more efficiently at the waterline, where there’s more oxygen and better access to some prey. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://www.kqed.org/science/1922038/the-mystery-of-the-upside-down-catfish ---+ For more information: The California Academy of Sciences has upside-down catfish in its aquarium collection: https://www.calacademy.org/exhibits/steinhart-aquarium ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: Take Two Leeches and Call Me in the Morning https://youtu.be/O-0SFWPLaII This Is Why Water Striders Make Terrible Lifeguards https://youtu.be/E2unnSK7WTE ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! PBS Eons: What a Dinosaur Looks Like Under a Microscope https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4rvgiDXc12k Origin of Everything: The Origin of Race in the USA https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CVxAlmAPHec ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation Fund and the members of KQED. #deeplook

5 months ago

Take Two Leeches and Call Me in the Morning | Deep Look

Support Deep Look on Patreon!! https://www.patreon.com/deeplook (FYI - This episode is a *bit* more bloody that usual – especially a little after the 2-minute mark. Just letting you know in case flesh wounds aren’t your thing) The same blood-sucking leeches feared by hikers and swimmers are making a comeback... in hospitals. Once used for questionable treatments, leeches now help doctors complete complex surgeries to reattach severed body parts. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. Leeches get a bad rap—but they might not deserve it. Yes, they’re creepy crawly blood-suckers. And they can instill an almost primal sense of disgust and revulsion. Humphrey Bogart’s character in the 1951 film The African Queen even went so far as to call them “filthy little devils.” But the humble leech is making a comeback. Contrary to the typical, derogatory definition of a human “leech,” this critter is increasingly playing a key role as a sidekick for scientists and doctors, simply by being its bloodthirsty self. Distant cousins of the earthworm, most leech species are parasites that feed on the blood of animals and humans alike. They are often found in freshwater and navigate either by swimming or by inching themselves along, using two suckers—one at each end of their body—to anchor themselves. Upon reaching an unsuspecting host, a leech will surreptitiously attach itself and begin to feed. It uses a triangular set of three teeth to cut in, and secretes a suite of chemicals to thin the blood and numb the skin so its presence goes undetected. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://www.kqed.org/science/1921659/take-two-leeches-and-call-me-in-the-morning ---+ For more information: David Weisblat at UC Berkeley studies leeches development and evolution https://mcb.berkeley.edu/labs/weisblat/research.html Biologists recently reported that leeches in that region can provide a valuable snapshot of which animals are present in a particular area https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/14772000.2018.1433729?journalCode=tsab20& ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: Why the Male Black Widow is a Real Home Wrecker | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NpJNeGqExrc For Pacific Mole Crabs It's Dig or Die | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tfoYD8pAsMw Praying Mantis Love is Waaay Weirder Than You Think | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NHf47gI8w04&t=83s ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! Above the Noise: Cow Burps Are Warming the Planet | Reactions https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MnRFUSGz_ZM What a Dinosaur Looks Like Under a Microscope | Eons https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4rvgiDXc12k Hawking Radiation | Space Time https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qPKj0YnKANw ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation Fund and the members of KQED. #deeplook

5 months ago

How Ticks Dig In With a Mouth Full of Hooks | Deep Look

Support Deep Look on Patreon!! https://www.patreon.com/deeplook Why can't you just flick a tick? Because it attaches to you with a mouth covered in hooks, while it fattens up on your blood. For days. But don't worry – there *is* a way to pull it out. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. Spring is here. Unfortunately for hikers and picnickers out enjoying the weather, the new season is prime time for ticks, which can transmit bacteria that cause Lyme disease. How they latch on – and stay on – is a feat of engineering that scientists have been piecing together. Once you know how a tick’s mouth works, you understand why it’s impossible to simply flick a tick. The key to their success is a menacing mouth covered in hooks that they use to get under the surface of our skin and attach themselves for several days while they fatten up on our blood. “Ticks have a lovely, evolved mouth part for doing exactly what they need to do, which is extended feeding,” said Kerry Padgett, supervising public health biologist at the California Department of Public Health in Richmond. “They're not like a mosquito that can just put their mouth parts in and out nicely, like a hypodermic needle.” Instead, a tick digs in using two sets of hooks. Each set looks like a hand with three hooked fingers. The hooks dig in and wriggle into the skin. Then these “hands” bend in unison to perform approximately half-a-dozen breaststrokes that pull skin out of the way so the tick can push in a long stubby part called the hypostome. “It’s almost like swimming into the skin,” said Dania Richter, a biologist at the Technische Universität Braunschweig in Germany, who has studied the mechanism closely. “By bending the hooks it’s engaging the skin. It’s pulling the skin when it retracts.” The bottom of their long hypostome is also covered in rows of hooks that give it the look of a chainsaw. Those hooks act like mini-harpoons, anchoring the tick to us for the long haul. “They’re teeth that are backwards facing, similar to one of those gates you would drive over but you're not allowed to back up or else you'd puncture your tires,” said Padgett. --- How to remove a tick. Kerry Padgett, at the California Department of Public Health, recommends grabbing the tick close to the skin using a pair of fine tweezers and simply pulling straight up. “No twisting or jerking,” she said. “Use a smooth motion pulling up.” Padgett warned against using other strategies. “Don't use Vaseline or try to burn the tick or use a cotton swab soaked in soft soap or any of these other techniques that might take a little longer or might not work at all,” she said. “You really want to remove the tick as soon as possible.” --- What happens if the mouth of a tick breaks off in your skin? Don’t worry if the tick’s mouth parts stay behind when you pull. “The mouth parts are not going to transmit disease to people,” said Padgett. If the mouth stayed behind in your skin, it will eventually work its way out, sort of like a splinter does, she said. Clean the bite area with soap and water and apply antibiotic ointment. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://www.kqed.org/science/1920972/how-ticks-dig-in-with-a-mouth-full-of-hooks ---+ For more information: Centers for Disease Control information on Lyme disease: https://www.cdc.gov/lyme/ Mosquito & Vector Control District for San Mateo County, California: https://www.smcmvcd.org/ticks ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: How Mosquitoes Use Six Needles to Suck Your Blood https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rD8SmacBUcU So … Sometimes Fireflies Eat Other Fireflies https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oWdCMFvgFbo ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! Above the Noise: Are Energy Drinks Really that Bad? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5l0cjsZS-eM It’s Okay To Be Smart: Inside an ICE CAVE! - Nature's Most Beautiful Blue https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P7LKm9jtm8I ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation Fund and the members of KQED. #deeplook #ticks #tickbite

6 months ago

So ... Sometimes Fireflies Eat Other Fireflies | Deep Look

Most firefly flashes are pure romance, a sexy form of skywriting. But one variety copies the mating signals of others to lure them to their demise. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. Most of the blinking signals that fireflies send out are intended to attract mates. But researchers are finding out that in some cases, these romantic overtures are not all wine and roses. Females of one firefly group, the genus Photuris, have learned to copy other fireflies’ flashes to attract the males of those species. When one arrives, she pounces, first sucking his blood, then devouring his insides. These “femme fatale” fireflies live throughout the Eastern U.S alongside the fireflies they target. They can develop widely varying light shows to target whatever species are in the area. The predatory habits of Photuris are just one example of how much individual firefly signals can differ from one another. The male Common Eastern Firefly, for example, is known for his fish hook-shaped aerial maneuver, which he repeats at six-second intervals. That characteristic move has earned the species the nickname “Big Dipper.” The male Big Dipper hopes this bit of skywriting will get him noticed by females hiding in the grass. If the female likes what she sees, her reply comes as a single pulse from her smaller, heart-shaped lantern. That’s his invitation to land and mate. Most firefly interactions follow the same pattern, with roving males advertising themselves to concealed females. Within a species, the back-and-forth signals are so reliable that it’s easy to attract the male fireflies with even a simple decoy. Firefly light is biochemical. But fireflies like the Big Dippers do much more with chemistry than just make light. They can mix together an array of other compounds, including invisible pheromones for mating, and others called lucibufagins (“loosa-BOOF-ajins”) that ward off predators like spiders and birds. At some point, the Photuris “femme fatale” fireflies lost the ability to make their own lucibufagins. So instead of chemistry, these bigger, stronger fireflies became adept at imitation, and evolved to turn into insect vampires to take these valuable compounds from other fireflies to boost their own defenses. And it works. In experiments, predators avoided Photuris fireflies that had recently preyed on other fireflies. --- Where do fireflies live? There are fireflies worldwide, but in the U.S., you’ll find them in the Midwest and Eastern U.S. There are a few species in the West, including the California Pink Glow-worm. --- Why do fireflies flash? Mostly, it’s to attract mates. One sex, usually the male, uses a more elaborate flash pattern to get the attention of the opposite sex. Then the female signals her interest with a simpler flash. --- Why do fireflies glow after they die? The chemicals in the firefly that make light, luciferin and luciferase, remain viable after it dies, and the reaction that creates the light thrives on oxygen, which is of course plentiful in the air. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/2018/02/27/so-sometimes-fireflies-eat-other-fireflies ---+ For more information: Join Fireflyers International: https://fireflyersinternational.net/ ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: Everything You Never Wanted to Know About Snail Sex https://youtu.be/UOcLaI44TXA Why the Male Black Widow is a Real Home Wrecker https://youtu.be/NpJNeGqExrc ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! PBS Eons: When Giant Fungi Ruled https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-G64DagHuOg Origin Of Everything: Why Do We Eat Artificial Flavors? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iNaJ31EV13U ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation Fund and the members of KQED. #deeplook

6 months ago

For Pacific Mole Crabs It's Dig or Die | Deep Look

Pacific mole crabs, also known as sand crabs, make their living just under the surface of the sand, where they're safe from breaking waves and hungry birds. Some very special physics help them dig with astonishing speed. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * Among the surfers and beach-casting anglers, there’s a new visitor to San Francisco’s Ocean Beach shoreline. Benjamin McInroe is there for only one reason -- to find Pacific mole crabs, a creature commonly known as “sand crabs” -- and the tiny animals whose burrowing causes millions of small bubbles to appear on the beach as the tide comes in and out. McInroe is a graduate student from UC Berkeley studying biophysics. He wants to know what makes these little creatures so proficient at digging their way through the wet sand. McInroe hopes that he can one day copy their techniques to build a new generation of digging robots. -- What are Pacific Mole Crabs? Pacific mole crabs, also known as sand crabs, are crustaceans, related to shrimp and lobsters. They have four pairs of legs and one pair of specialized legs in the front called uropods that look like paddles for digging in sand. Pacific mole crabs burrow through wet sand and stick their antennae out to catch bits of kelp and other debris kicked up by the breaking waves. -- What makes those holes in the sand at the beach? When the waves recede, mole crabs burrow down into the sand to keep from being exposed. They dig tail-first very quickly leaving holes in the wet sand. The holes bubble as water seeps into the holes and the air escapes. -- What do birds eat in the wet beach sand? Shore birds like seagulls rush down the beach as the waves recede to catch mole crabs that haven’t burrowed down quickly enough to escape. The birds typically run or fly away as the next wave breaks and rolls in. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2018/02/13/for-pacific-mole-crabs-its-dig-or-die/ ---+ For more information: Benjamin McInroe, a Ph.D. student at UC Berkeley, studies how Pacific mole crabs burrow https://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~bmcinroe/ Professor Robert Full directs the Poly-PEDAL Lab at UC Berkeley, where researchers study the physics of how animals and use that knowledge to build mechanical systems like robots based on their findings. http://polypedal.berkeley.edu/ ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: Decorator Crabs Make High Fashion at Low Tide | Deep Look https://youtu.be/OwQcv7TyX04 These Fish Are All About Sex on the Beach | Deep Look https://youtu.be/j5F3z1iP0Ic Sea Urchins Pull Themselves Inside Out to be Reborn | Deep Look https://youtu.be/ak2xqH5h0YY There's Something Very Fishy About These Trees ... | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rZWiWh5acbE&t=1s ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! Why Do We Eat Artificial Flavors? | Origin of Everything https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iNaJ31EV13U The Facts About Dinosaurs & Feathers https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aOeFRg_1_Yg Why Is Blue So Rare In Nature? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3g246c6Bv58 ---+ Follow KQED Science KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation Fund and the members of KQED. #deeplook

7 months ago

This Giant Plant Looks Like Raw Meat and Smells Like Dead Rat | Deep Look

With rows of Dr. Seuss-like flowers hidden deep inside, the corpse flower plays dead to lure some unusual pollinators. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * For a plant that emits an overpowering stench of rotting carcass, you’d think the corpse flower would have a PR problem. But it’s quite the opposite: Anytime a corpse flower opens up at a botanical garden somewhere in the world visitors flock to catch a whiff and get a glimpse of the giant plant, which can grow up to 10 feet tall when it blooms and generally only does so every two to 10 years. A corpse flower’s whole survival strategy is based on deception. It’s not a flower and it’s not a rotting dead animal, but it mimics both. Pollination remains out of sight, deep within the plant. KQED’s Deep Look staff was able to film inside a corpse flower, revealing the rarely-seen moment when the plant’s male flowers release glistening strings of pollen. It’s not that the corpse flower is the only plant to attract pollinators like flies and beetles by putting out bad smells. Nor is it the only one that produces male and female flowers at the same time. “The fact that it does all of this at this outsized scale – all of this together – is what’s so unique about it, biologically,” said Pati Vitt, senior scientist at the Chicago Botanic Garden. When a titan arum is ready to flower, a stalk starts to grow out of the soil. Once it has reached four to 10 feet, a red “skirt” unfurls. Though it has the appearance of a petal, it’s really a modified leaf called a spathe that looks like a raw steak. The yellow stalk underneath is called the spadix and it gives the plant its scientific name, Amorphophallus titanum, or roughly “giant deformed phallus.” In its native Sumatra, the corpse flower opens for only 24 hours. In captivity, it often lasts longer. With just a day to reproduce, the stakes are high. --- How many chemicals make up the smell of the corpse flower? More than 30 chemicals make up the scent of the corpse flower, according to the 2017 paper “Studies on the floral anatomy and scent chemistry of titan arum” by researchers at the University of Mississippi, University of Florida, Gainsville, and Anadolu University in Turkey: http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/botany/issues/bot-17-41-1/bot-41-1-6-1604-34.pdf Some of the chemicals have a pleasant scent. But mostly, the corpse flower at first smells like funky cheese and rotting garlic, as a result of sulphur-smelling compounds. Hours later, the stink changes to what Vanessa Handley, at the University of California Botanical Garden at Berkeley describes as “dead rat in the walls of your house.” ---+ Read the entire article: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2018/01/23/this-giant-plant-looks-like-raw-meat-and-smells-like-dead-rat/ ---+ For more information: Great illustration on the lifecycle of the corpse flower by the Chicago Botanic Garden: https://www.chicagobotanic.org/titan/faq University of California Davis Botanical Conservatory: http://greenhouse.ucdavis.edu/conservatory/ ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: This Mushroom Starts Killing You Before You Even Realize It https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bl9aCH2QaQY A Real Alien Invasion Is Coming to a Palm Tree Near You https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S6a3Q5DzeBM ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from PBS Digital Studios! It’s Okay To Be Smart: How to Figure Out the Day of the Week For Any Date Ever https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=714LTMNJy5M Above The Noise: Can Genetically Engineered Mosquitoes Help Fight Disease? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CB_h7aheAEM ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation Fund and the members of KQED. #deeplook

8 months ago

Why the Male Black Widow is a Real Home Wrecker | Deep Look

Sure, the female black widow has a terrible reputation. But who’s the real victim here? Her male counterpart is a total jerk — and might just be getting what he deserves. Learn more about CuriosityStream at http://curiositystream.com/deeplook SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. We’ve all heard the stories. She mates and then kills. Her venom is 15 times stronger than a rattlesnake’s. One bite could kill you. With a shiny black color and a glaring red hourglass stomach, she has long inspired fear and awe. But most species of widow spider (there are 31), including the western black widow found in the U.S., don’t kill their mates at all. Only two widow spider species always eat their mate, the Australian redback and the brown widow, an invasive species in California. And the male seems to be asking for it. In both of these species, he offers himself to her, somersaulting into her mouth after copulation. He may even deserve it. During peak mating season, thousands of males will prowl around looking for females. Females set up their webs, stay put and wait. Once the male arrives at her silken abode, he starts to wreck it, systematically disassembling her web one strand at a time. In a process scientists call web reduction, he bunches it into a little ball and wraps it up with his own silk. Then, while mating, he will wrap her in fine strands that researchers refer to as the bridal veil. He drapes his silk over her legs, where her smell receptors are most concentrated. After all of that, he is most likely to crawl away, alive and unscathed. --- Why does the black widow spider eat her mate? No one really knows, but scientists assume his body supplies her with nutrition for laying eggs. Sometimes she eats him by accident, not recognizing him as a mate. --- How harmful are black widows to people? We couldn’t find a documented case of a human death from a black widow spider in the U.S., but a bite will make you sick with extreme flu-like symptoms. Luckily, black widows aren’t aggressive to people. --- Why do black widows have a red hourglass? It’s a warning sign, a phenomenon common in nature that scientists call aposematicism, which is the use of color to ward off enemies. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2018/01/09/why-the-male-black-widow-spider-is-a-real-home-wrecker/ ---+ For more information: Black widow researcher Catherine Scott’s website: http://spiderbytes.org/ ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: Why Is The Very Hungry Caterpillar So Dang Hungry? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=el_lPd2oFV4 Everything You Never Wanted to Know About Snail Sex https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UOcLaI44TXA ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! Origin of Everything: Why Does Santa Wear Red? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fajNM5OPVnA PBS Eons: 'Living Fossils' Aren't Really a Thing https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mPvZj2KcjAY ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate based in San Francisco, serves the people of Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial media. Home to one of the most listened-to public radio station in the nation, one of the highest-rated public television services and an award-winning education program, KQED is also a leader and innovator in interactive media and technology, taking people of all ages on journeys of exploration — exposing them to new people, places and ideas. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by HopeLab, The David B. Gold Foundation; S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation; The Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation; The Vadasz Family Foundation; Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook #blackwidow #spiders

8 months ago

Praying Mantis Love is Waaay Weirder Than You Think | Deep Look

Support Deep Look on Patreon!! https://www.patreon.com/deeplook These pocket-sized predators are formidable hunters. But when it comes to hooking up, male mantises have good reason to fear commitment. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * Mike Maxwell recently finished a ninth season studying the love life of the praying mantises that live around Bishop, a town in California’s Eastern Sierra. Over that time, he’s seen some unsettlingly strange behaviors. It’s pretty common knowledge that female mantises sometimes eat males during or after mating — a habit that biologists call “sexual cannibalism.” But among the bordered mantises that Maxwell researches, it gets weirder than that. As it turns out, when a male mantis loses his head, it doesn’t mean he loses the urge to procreate. You read that right. Not only can some male bordered mantises continue mating even while being attacked by their female counterparts, some males are able to mount a female and initiate mating even after getting their heads completely bitten off. “It’s a really weird, strange behavior,” said Maxwell, “So what’s going on? Why do they do it?” -- What do praying mantises eat? Praying mantises are mostly ambush predators that typically eat small animals like grasshoppers, crickets, bees, crickets and butterflies . They use camouflage to hide themselves and wait for their prey to come within striking distance. Then they use their raptorial forelimbs to grab their prey. Spikes on their forelimbs help them hold their prey while they eat. -- Why do praying mantises eat each other? Female praying mantises sometimes eat males that approach them to mate. They are only able to do this because mantises are predators and the female mantises are bigger and stronger than the males. -- Do praying mantises bite? Most mantises will not bite people but they will pinch people with their forelimbs to defend themselves. It feels a lot like getting bit, trust me. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2017/11/14/praying-mantis-love-is-waaay-weirder-than-you-think-deep-look/ ---+ For more information: Dr. Michael Maxwell, National University https://www.nu.edu/OurPrograms/CollegeOfLettersAndSciences/MathematicsAndNaturalSciences/Faculty/MichelRMaxwell.html ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: It’s a Goopy Mess When Pines and Beetles Duke it Out | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wR5O48zsbnc These Whispering, Walking Bats Are Onto Something | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l2py029bwhA&t=3s There's Something Very Fishy About These Trees ... | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rZWiWh5acbE&t=1s ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from PBS Digital Studios! How Your Rubber Ducky Explains Colonialism | Origin of Everything https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BWjzOcIIxgM When Whales Walked | PBS Eons https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_OSRKtT_9vw The Cheerios Effect | It’s OK To Be Smart https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mbKAwk-OG_w ---+ Follow KQED Science KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook #prayingmantis #mantises

10 months ago

It’s a Goopy Mess When Pines and Beetles Duke it Out | Deep Look

An onslaught of tiny western pine beetles can bring down a mighty ponderosa pine. But the forest fights back by waging a sticky attack of its own. Who will win the battle in the bark? SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * Bark beetles are specialized, with each species attacking only one or a few species of trees. Ponderosa pines are attacked by dark brown beetles the size of a grain of rice called western pine beetles (Dendroctonus brevicomis). In the spring and summer, female western pine beetles fly around ponderosa pine stands looking for trees to lay their eggs in. As they start boring into a ponderosa, the tree oozes a sticky, viscous clear liquid called resin. If the tree is healthy, it can produce so much resin that the beetle gets exhausted and trapped as the resin hardens, which can kill it. “The western pine beetle is an aggressive beetle that in order to successfully reproduce has to kill the tree,” said U.S. Forest Service ecologist Sharon Hood, based in Montana. “So the tree has very evolved responses. With pines, they have a whole resin duct system. You can imagine these vertical and horizontal pipes.” But during California’s five-year drought, which ended earlier this year, ponderosa pines weren’t getting much water and couldn’t make enough resin to put up a strong defense. Beetles bored through the bark of millions of trees and sent out an aggregating pheromone to call more beetles and stage a mass attack. An estimated 102 million trees – most of them ponderosa – died in California between 2010 and 2016. -- What is resin? Resin – sometimes also called pitch – is a different substance from sap, though trees produce both. Resin is a sticky, viscous liquid that trees exude to heal over wounds and flush out bark beetles, said Sharon Hood, of the Forest Service. Sap, on the other hand, is the continuous water column that the leaves pull up to the top of the tree from its roots. --- Are dead trees a fire hazard? Standing dead trees that have lost their needles don’t increase fire risk, said forest health scientist Jodi Axelson, a University of California extension specialist based at UC Berkeley. But “once they fall to the ground you end up with these very heavy fuel loads,” she said, “and that undoubtedly is going to make fire behavior more intense.” And dead – or living – trees can fall on electric lines and ignite a fire, which is why agencies in California are prioritizing the removal of dead trees near power lines, said Axelson. ---+ Read the entire article about who’s winning the battle between ponderosa pines and western pine beetles in California, on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2017/10/24/with-california-drought-over-fewer-sierra-pines-dying/ ---+ For more information: Check out the USDA’s “Bark Beetles in California Conifers – Are Your Trees Susceptible?” https://www.fs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_DOCUMENTS/stelprdb5384837.pdf ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: This Mushroom Starts Killing You Before You Even Realize It https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bl9aCH2QaQY&t=57s The Bombardier Beetle And Its Crazy Chemical Cannon https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BWwgLS5tK80 There’s Something Very Fishy About These Trees … https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rZWiWh5acbE ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from PBS Digital Studios! Vascular Plants = Winning! - Crash Course Biology #37 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h9oDTMXM7M8&index=37&list=PL3EED4C1D684D3ADF Julia Child Remixed | Keep On Cooking https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=80ZrUI7RNfI ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook

11 months ago